To provide significant evidence for health policy making in China , this study aims to determine the cost-effectiveness of NHS program implementation in case of eight provinces of China. Methods A cost-effectiveness model was conducted and all neonates annually born from to in eight provinces of China were simulated in this model. The model parameters were estimated from the established databases in the general hospitals or maternal and child health hospitals of these eight provinces, supplemented from the published literature.
The model estimated changes in program implementation costs, disability-adjusted life years DALYs, average cost-effectiveness ratio ACER, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ICER for universal screening compared to targeted screening in eight provinces.
Results and discussion A multivariate sensitivity analysis was performed to determine uncertainty in health effect estimates and cost-effectiveness ratios using a probabilistic modeling technique. This study showed although there was a huge disparity in the implementation of the NHS program in the surveyed provinces, both universal strategy and targeted strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developed provinces, while neither of the screening strategy showed cost-effectiveness in those relatively developing provinces.
Supplementary Issue. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. The mean value of the meter dash and standing long jump in male students was higher than in female students Pobesity and obesity for male students were BMI was weakly positively associated with the meter dash score, but was negatively associated with the score for standing long jump and pull-ups.
University students should exercise more to improve physical health. Urinary phthalate metabolites and environmental phenols in university students in South China. In China , university students have unique lifestyles compared with the rest of the youth population, as they are almost entirely isolated in campuses.
The number of university students is large, and since students represent the future of human reproduction, exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors EEDs may have a large impact on society. In this study, levels of several EEDs, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, bisphenol A BPA and its analogues, triclosan TCS , and benzophenone-3, were determined in urine samples collected from university students in Guangzhou, South China.
In addition, to further understand the potential sources of EEDs in their daily lives, a survey of students' lifestyles was conducted. Based on the urinary concentrations of EEDs and the survey results, daily exposure doses of target EEDs and their potential sources were investigated. The concentrations of total phthalates median: Objective: To investigate the current status of occupational mental health and job satisfaction in university teachers in Shenyang, China and related influencing factors.
Methods: A total of teachers from 6 universities in Shenyang were randomly selected as study subjects from November to January Self-administered questionnaires were used to investigate mental health, including effort-reward imbalance questionnaire, Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiological Survey-Depression Scale, and Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Results: Of all teachers, Improving equity in health care financing in China during the progression towards Universal Health Coverage. China is reforming the way it finances health care as it moves towards Universal Health Coverage UHC after the failure of market-oriented mechanisms for health care.
Improving financing equity is a major policy goal of health care system during the progression towards universal coverage. We used progressivity analysis and dominance test to evaluate the financing channels of general taxation, pubic health insurance, and out-of-pocket OOP payments. In a survey of individuals in households recorded the socioeconomic and demographic status, and health care payments of those households. The overall Kakwani index KI of China 's health care financing system is 0.
For general tax KI was OOP payments are still the dominant part of China 's health care finance system. China 's health care financing system is not really equitable. Reducing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve health care financing equity. The flat-rate contribution mechanism is not recommended for use in public health insurance schemes, and more attention should be given to optimizing benefit packages during China 's progression towards UHC.
Full Text Available 1 Objective: We aimed to explore the current situation of eating out and the association with socio-demographic factors of university students in Chongqing, China.
In each selected university , two disciplines were randomly selected. The frequency of eating out was relatively high. The frequency of eating out among females was higher than that among males during weekdays. The two main reasons for eating out were having an opportunity to meet friends Bistros Only The majority of the participants demonstrated a high demand for nutrition and food safety knowledge when eating out An intervention strategy to reduce the frequency or change the behavior of eating out should be formulated by considering the students' perspectives.
Hong Kong. The development of community nursing services has expanded the scope of nursing services to those in need of, not just hospital-level nursing care, but more holistic care to improve health and quality of life. Community nursing services help to pave the road to Universal Health Coverage.
Poor Simon Ch. 11
The development relation: University -government-enterprise. Comparative case Mexico, Korea and China. Full Text Available Over global world, the competitive of the nations must be an internal structure for increase and sustainable the rich of the people. This structure should make sustained growth through the generation of proprietary technology; have a facilitator for the creation and enterprise development.
A university linked with companies to solve problems and a firm that helps companies to grow new businesses. This paper reviews the actions of the Thd in recent years, in countries of Korea, China and Mexico.
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Korea have durable support of United States over the Civil War. At the end United States and Japan make cooperation for the creation of technology and export products to these countries. Providing capital to Korea to generate their own technology resources through foreign investment. Mexico begins to generate emerging technology products by supporting the Fund for Small and Medium Enterprises established the National System of Incubators and generates programs with universities and business entrepreneurs with the federal government creates financial support for the creation of industrial clusters.
Based on case studies of China and Japan, this study undertakes comparative research on major aspects of university curriculum and instruction-teaching activities of academics, their role in curriculum development, and their perceptions of these activities--between a mass and a universal higher education system. Major findings from the APA…. Strategies for Internationalization of Higher Education. The Nordic Centre at Fudan University China links it with Norwegian universities , and has resulted in: a new Norwegian School of Management program; a Chinese-Norwegian dictionary; short credit courses on Scandinavian affairs for Chinese students; language courses and examinations for Norwegian students of Chinese; establishment of a library on….
Migraine attacks among medical students in Soochow University , Southeast China : a cross-sectional study. This study aimed to investigate the migraine prevalence in a sample of university medical students in China and to examine the features and typical trigger factors of migraine among these students.
Patients and methods: From May to August , a total of 1, medical students who were enrolled in Soochow University in Jiangsu Province in China were chosen through stratified random sampling. A self-administered questionnaire that included the ID MigraineTM for screening of migraine cases was used to collect data.
The frequency, severity, duration of migraine attacks, and relevant trigger factors were measured for migraine cases. In total, students completed the questionnaire. Results: The overall migraine prevalence among students was 7. Junior-grade students had a higher migraine prevalence than senior students prevalence of migraine of year 1 to year 5 undergraduates: Reducing stress and improving sleep quality might be effective. Universal neonatal hearing screening program in Shanghai, China : An inter-regional and international comparison.
By comparing the Universal Neonatal Hearing Screening UNHS program as implemented in Shanghai and other regions in China and countries around the world, this study makes an assessment of the Shanghai model and summarizes the experiences implementing the UNHS program, so as to provide a valuable reference for other countries or regions to carry out UNHS more effectively.
The Cultural Interpretation of “Golden Sound and Jade Vibration” | SpringerLink
Since Shanghai is one of the most developed regions in China , we also examined the relationship between economic development and the UNHS starting year and coverage rate. The study conducted a systematic review of published studies in Chinese and English on the program status of neonatal hearing screening to compare and analyze the implementation of the UNHS program in 20 cities or provinces in China and 24 regions or countries around the world.
We searched all publications in those databases with the keywords "neonatal hearing screening" in Chinese between and English literature was searched using the same keywords in English. The publication database included Medline and Web of Science, and the search time period was Shanghai was one of the first regions in China to implement UNHS, and its coverage rate was among the top regions by international comparison. Economic level serves as a threshold for carrying out UNHS but is not a linear contributor to the exact starting time of such a program.
The screening coverage rate generally showed a rising trend with the increasing GDP per capita in China , but it had no relationship with the area's GDP per capita in selected regions and countries around the world. The system design of UNHS is the key factor. Contextual influences affecting patterns of overweight and obesity among university students: a 50 universities population-based study in China. Many studies have examined childhood and adolescent obesity, but few have examined young adults and the effect of their home and current living environments on prevalence rates.
The present study explores contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among university students in China and, in particular, focuses on how the SES-obesity relationship varies across different geographical contexts. Participants were 11, students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities.
Individual data was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in overweight and obesity. Overall the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the study sample was 9. After controlling for individual factors, both attributes of the home location regional GDP per capita and rurality and the current university location city population were found to be important, thus suggesting that the different origins of students affect current levels of obesity.
At the individual level, while students with more financial resources were more likely to be obese, the extent of this relationship was highly dependent upon area income and city size. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting overweight and obesity among young adults and indicate a need to take into account both past as well as present environmental influences when considering the role of contextual factors in models of the nutrition transition. In recent decades, an increasing number of planning and design professionals in the United States and Europe have undertaken consulting work in China.
This study examines the first instance of a Chinese city funding an American academic planning unit to create a conceptual plan for a new town. Prior to the drafting of the plan, faculty and students visited the site on a reconnaissance and data gathering mission, undertook research and studio work, organized presentations, and navigated the labyrinthine bureaucracy at the local, provincial, and national levels.
These experiences differ considerably from those encountered in places such as Shanghai and the southern coastal plain region. This article identifies a number of issues that play a key role in the success of projects involving American or European Universities in conjunction with the Chinese government, particularly provincial authorities. This paper provides a valuable reference for any organization involved in such undertakings. Objectives This study examines the association between cultural orientation and drinking behaviors among university students. Cultural orientation is the measure of how the cultural values of individuals living in their own society are influenced by cultural values introduced from the outside.
Methods In , a cross-sectional survey collected data from university students from six universities in central China.
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Participants used a likert scale to rank a series of statements reflecting cultural values from the previously validated Chinese Cultural Orientation Scale and answered questions about their drinking behaviors and socio-demographic characteristics. Results Statistically significant differences in cultural orientation were observed for gender, hometown and type of university attendance. Traditional-oriented students were more likely to be occasional drinkers or nondrinkers, while marginal-oriented students, bicultural-oriented students and western-oriented students were more likely to be regular drinkers.
Conclusions Cultural orientation influences drinking behaviors. Traditional cultural orientation was associated with less drinking while western cultural orientation, marginal cultural orientation and bicultural orientation were associated with more drinking. The role of gender, hometown and university attendance is partially moderated through the influence of cultural orientation.
The relationship between a traditional cultural orientation and alcohol drinking suggests that traditional Chinese cultural values should be examined for their role in possibly reducing alcohol-related risks through education and policy initiatives. This study had 2 aims.
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