Hauzeur, S. Sintzoff Jr. Steinberg, W. Hosick, K. Methodologic Problems in Staging and Evaluating Osteonecrosis. Bernard N. Stulberg, J. Back Matter Pages They had met several times in Toulouse, during the International Symposia on Bone Circulation held there since and they wished to carry their contacts further. In founding A. At the present time, the Association has over a hundred members from more than bone tissue twenty countries in Europe, America and Asia.
All have the conviction that and its pathology can only be truly known and studied if one has an understanding of its vascular system and the way its circulation functions. This concept, apparently beyond question, has not yet been adopted by all physicians and scientists who are interested in bone. Staging bone diagnosis electromagnetic electromagnetic fields magnetic fields pathophysiology physiology positron emission tomography tissue. Editors and affiliations. Schoutens 1 J. Arlet 2 J. Gardeniers 3 S. Hughes 4 1. According to the French police account, he shouted right before pulling out his gun: "You're a filthy boche!
In the name of 12, persecuted Jews, here is the document! Grynszpan made no attempt to resist or escape, and identified himself truthfully to the French police. He confessed to shooting Rath who was in critical condition in a hospital , and repeated that his motive was to avenge the persecuted Jews. In his pocket was the postcard to his parents; it read, "With God's help.
My dear parents, I could not do otherwise, may God forgive me, the heart bleeds when I hear of your tragedy and that of the 12, Jews. I must protest so that the whole world hears my protest, and that I will do. Forgive me. Hermann [his German name]". Despite the best efforts of French and German doctors including Adolf Hitler 's personal physician, Karl Brandt , the year-old Rath died on 9 November. In his eulogy, Ribbentrop called the shooting as an attack by Jews on the German people: "We understand the challenge, and we accept it". Rath's assassination was used to justify planned antisemitic pogroms in Germany.
Rath died on the fifteenth anniversary of the Beer Hall Putsch , the greatest holiday of the Nazi calendar. It would not be surprising, Goebbels said, if the German people were so outraged by the assassination of a German diplomat by a Jew that they took the law into their own hands and attacked Jewish businesses, community centres and synagogues. Such "spontaneous outbursts" should not be openly organised by the Nazi Party or the SA , but should not be opposed or prevented either. That Rath's death was a pretext was indicated by Goebbels' diary entry for that day: "In the afternoon the death of the German diplomat vom Rath is announced.
That's good I go to the Party reception in the old Rathaus. Terrific activity. I brief Hitler on the affair.
He decides: allow the demonstrations to go on. Withdraw the police. The Jews should feel the people's fury. That's right. I issue appropriate instructions to the police and party. Then I give a brief speech on the subject to the Party's leadership.
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Thunderous applause. Everyone dashed to the telephone. Now the people will act". Within hours, Nazis began a pogrom against Jewish communities throughout Germany which became known as Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass and lasted all night and into the following day. More than 90 Jews were killed; over 30, Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps where over a thousand died before the remainder were released, several months later , and thousands of Jewish shops, homes, offices and more than synagogues were smashed or burned. Kristallnacht shocked the world, and helped end the climate of support for the appeasement of Hitler in Britain, France and the United States.
It also triggered a new wave of Jewish emigration from Germany. Grynszpan was distraught when he learned that his action was used by the Nazis to justify further violent assaults on German Jews, although his family having been deported to the Polish border was safe from that particular manifestation of Nazi antisemitism.
The Nazi government had been planning violence against the Jews for some time, and was waiting for a suitable pretext. Rath's death and the horror of Kristallnacht brought Grynszpan international notoriety. Enjoying his celebrity status, he was frequently interviewed in his prison cell and wrote letters to celebrities around the world.
Dorothy Thompson , the first American journalist to be expelled from Nazi Germany in , made an impassioned 14 November broadcast to an estimated five million listeners in defence of Grynszpan and noted that the Nazis had made heroes of the assassins of Austrian Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss and German-Jewish Foreign Minister Walther Rathenau :. I am speaking of this boy. Soon he will go on trial. The news is that on top of all this terror, this horror, one more must pay. They say he will go to the guillotine, without a trial by jury, with the rights that any common murderer has Who is on trial in this case?
I say we are all on trial. I say the men of Munich are on trial, who signed a pact without one word of protection for helpless minorities. Whether Herschel Grynszpan lives or not won't matter much to Herschel. He was prepared to die when he fired those shots. His young life was already ruined.
Since then, his heart has been broken into bits by the results of his deed. They say a man is entitled to a trial by a jury of his peers, and a man's kinsmen rally around him, when he is in trouble. But no kinsman of Herschel's can defend him. The Nazi government has announced that if any Jews, anywhere in the world, protest at anything that is happening, further oppressive measures will be taken. They are holding every Jew in Germany as a hostage. Therefore, we who are not Jews must speak, speak our sorrow and indignation and disgust in so many voices that they will be heard.
This boy has become a symbol, and the responsibility for his deed must be shared by those who caused it. Liberal and left-wing newspapers and commentators in a number of countries echoed Thompson's sentiments. Deploring Rath's assassination, they said that Grynszpan had been driven to his act by the Nazi persecution of German Jews in general and his family in particular. Jewish organizations were horrified by Grynszpan's action, which they condemned more severely than most non-Jewish liberals while echoing the plea of extenuating circumstances and condemning the subsequent attacks on all German Jews in response to the act of an isolated individual.
The World Jewish Congress "deplored the fatal shooting of an official of the German Embassy by a young Polish Jew of seventeen", but "protested energetically against the violent attacks in the German press against the whole of Judaism because of this act" and "reprisals taken against the German Jews. Several appeals were launched to raise money for Grynszpan's defence. Jewish organizations also raised money. When the case became internationally known, the family sought a well-known lawyer and retained Isidore Franckel  one of Paris's leading advocates and president of the central committee of Hatzohar , the Union of Revisionist Zionists.
Legal fees and expenses were paid from Thompson's fund for Grynszpan's defence. Until Franckel and Moro-Giafferi took over his defence, it was accepted that Grynszpan went to the Embassy in a rage and shot the first German he saw as a political act to avenge the persecution of his family and all German Jews.
His statements after his arrest supported this view; he told the Paris police, "Being a Jew is not a crime. I am not a dog.
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I have a right to live and the Jewish people have a right to exist on this earth. Wherever I have been, I have been chased like an animal.
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If the crime could be shown to have a non-political motive, he might be acquitted or receive a lesser sentence; French law traditionally took a lenient view of crimes of passion. Moro-Gaifferi's legal strategy depoliticized Grynszpan's actions. Grynszpan was theorized to have been acquainted with Rath before the shooting.
It is unclear if Grynszpan was alleged to be homosexual or was using his youth and appearance to win an influential friend. According to the theory, Rath had promised to use his influence to legalize Grynszpan's French residency. When Rath reneged on his promise, Grynszpan went to the embassy and shot him.
No firm evidence exists that Rath and Grynszpan had met before the shooting. German embassy officials were certain that Grynszpan had not asked for Rath by name, and saw Rath only because he happened to be on duty at the time. In the Sachsenhausen concentration camp in , Grynszpan told fellow inmates that he intended to falsely claim at his trial that he had had a homosexual relationship with Rath.
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