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Section 2. Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

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Under his rule the revolts were successfully suppressed and he ruled Kandahar with uncompromising severity. He began imprisoning and executing the native Afghans, especially those suspected in having taken part in the rebellions.

Section 1. Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom from:

One of those arrested and imprisoned was Mirwais Hotak who belonged to an influential family in Kandahar. Mirwais was sent as a prisoner to the Persian court in Isfahan , but the charges against him were dismissed by the king, so he was sent back to his native land as a free man.

In April , Mirwais along with his militia under Khan Nasher revolted. Southern Afghanistan was made into an independent local Pashtun kingdom. He died of natural causes in November and was succeeded by his brother Abdul Aziz Hotak.


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Aziz was killed about two years later by Mirwais' son Mahmud Hotaki , allegedly for planning to give Kandahar's sovereignty back to Persia. He was known after that as Shah Mahmud. Mahmud began a short-lived reign of terror against his Persian subjects who defied his rule from the very start, and he was eventually murdered in by his own cousin, Ashraf Hotaki.

History of Afghanistan - Wikipedia

Some sources say he died of madness. Ashraf was able to secure peace with the Ottoman Empire in See Treaty of Hamedan , winning against a superior Ottoman army during the Ottoman-Hotaki War , but the Russian Empire took advantage of the continuing political unrest and civil strife to seize former Persian territories for themselves, limiting the amount of territory under Shah Mahmud's control.

The short lived Hotaki dynasty was a troubled and violent one from the very start as internecine conflict made it difficult for them to establish permanent control. The dynasty lived under great turmoil due to bloody succession feuds that made their hold on power tenuous.

There was a massacre of thousands of civilians in Isfahan; including more than three thousand religious scholars, nobles, and members of the Safavid family. Hotaki's rule continued in Afghanistan until when Shah Hussain was defeated and banished by Nader Shah of Persia. The Hotakis were eventually removed from power in , after a very short lived reign. They were defeated in the October by the Iranian military commander Nader Shah , head of the Afsharids , at the Battle of Damghan.

After several military campaigns against the Afghans, he effectively reduced the Hotaki's power to only southern Afghanistan. The last ruler of the Hotaki dynasty, Shah Hussain, ruled southern Afghanistan until when the Afsharids and the Abdali Pashtuns defeated him at the long Siege of Kandahar.

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Nader Shah and his Afsharid Persian army arrived in the town of Kandahar in and defeated Hussain Hotaki subsequently absorbing all of Afghanistan in his empire and renaming Kandahar as Naderabad. Nadir Shah was assassinated on 19 June by several of his Persian officers, and the Afsharid Persian empire fell to pieces.

At the same time the year-old Ahmad Khan was busy in Afghanistan calling for a loya jirga "grand assembly" to select a leader among his people. The Afghans gathered near Kandahar in October and chose Ahmad Shah from among the challengers, making him their new head of state. After the inauguration or coronation , he became known as Ahmad Shah Durrani. He adopted the title padshah durr-i dawran 'King, "pearl of the age" and the Abdali tribe became known as the Durrani tribe after this. In October , Ahmad Shah retired to his home in Kandahar where he died peacefully and was buried at a site that is now adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak.

Timur died in and his son Zaman Shah Durrani took over the reign. Zaman Shah and his brothers had a weak hold on the legacy left to them by their famous ancestor. They sorted out their differences through a "round robin of expulsions, blindings and executions," which resulted in the deterioration of the Afghan hold over far-flung territories, such as Attock and Kashmir. Durrani's other grandson, Shuja Shah Durrani , fled the wrath of his brother and sought refuge with the Sikhs. Not only had Durrani invaded the Punjab region many times, but had destroyed the holiest shrine of the Sikhs — the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar , defiling its sarowar with the blood of cows and decapitating Baba Deep Singh in The Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh , eventually wrested a large part of the Kingdom of Kabul present day Pakistan, but not including Sindh from the Afghans.

Dost Mohammed Khan gained control in Kabul. Collision between the expanding British and Russian Empires significantly influenced Afghanistan during the 19th century in what was termed " The Great Game ". British concern over Russian advances in Central Asia and growing influence in West Asia and Persia in particular culminated in two Anglo-Afghan wars and " The Siege of Herat " —, in which the Persians, trying to retake Afghanistan and throw out the British, sent armies into the country and fought the British mostly around and in the city of Herat.

The first Anglo-Afghan War — resulted in the destruction of a British army; it is remembered by first-hand account as an example of the ferocity of Afghan resistance to foreign rule. During his reign — , the British and Russians officially established the boundaries of what would become modern Afghanistan. The British retained effective control over Kabul 's foreign affairs. Abdur Rahman's reforms of the army, legal system and structure of government were able to give Afghanistan a degree of unity and stability which it had not before known.

This, however, came at the cost of strong centralisation, harsh punishments for crime and corruption, and a certain degree of international isolation. Habibullah Khan , Abdur Rahman's son, came to the throne in and kept Afghanistan neutral during World War I, despite German encouragement of anti-British feelings and Afghan rebellion along the borders of British India.

His policy of neutrality was not universally popular within the country; however, and Habibullah was assassinated in , possibly by family members opposed to British influence. His third son, Amanullah , regained control of Afghanistan's foreign policy after launching the Third Anglo-Afghan War with an attack on India in the same year. During the ensuing conflict, the war-weary British relinquished their control over Afghan foreign affairs by signing the Treaty of Rawalpindi in August In commemoration of this event, Afghans celebrate 19 August as their Independence Day.

King Amanullah Khan moved to end his country's traditional isolation in the years following the Third Anglo-Afghan war. He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's first constitution declared through a Loya Jirga , which made elementary education compulsory. He was soon declared King Nadir Khan. He began consolidating power and regenerating the country. He abandoned the reforms of Amanullah Khan in favour of a more gradual approach to modernisation. In , however, he was assassinated in a revenge killing by a student from Kabul. Mohammad Zahir Shah , Nadir Khan's year-old son, succeeded to the throne and reigned from to In , another of Zahir Shah's uncles, Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan , became Prime Minister and began an experiment allowing greater political freedom, but reversed the policy when it went further than he expected.

Afghanistan

In , he was replaced as Prime Minister by Mohammed Daoud Khan , the king's cousin and brother-in-law. Daoud looked for a closer relationship with the Soviet Union and a more distant one towards Pakistan. However, disputes with Pakistan led to an economic crisis and he was asked to resign in From until , Zahir Shah took a more active role.

In , King Zahir Shah promulgated a liberal constitution providing for a bicameral legislature to which the king appointed one-third of the deputies. The people elected another third, and the remainder were selected indirectly by provincial assemblies. Although Zahir's "experiment in democracy" produced few lasting reforms, it permitted the growth of unofficial extremist parties on both the left and the right.

Amid charges of corruption and malfeasance against the royal family and poor economic conditions created by the severe —72 drought, former Prime Minister Mohammad Sardar Daoud Khan seized power in a non-violent coup on July 17, , while Zahir Shah was receiving treatment for eye problems and therapy for lumbago in Italy. His attempts to carry out badly needed economic and social reforms met with little success, and the new constitution promulgated in February failed to quell chronic political instability.

The leaders of PDPA apparently feared that Daoud was planning to exterminate them all, especially since most of them were arrested by the government shortly after. Nonetheless, Hafizullah Amin and a number of military wing officers of the PDPA's Khalq faction managed to remain at large and organize a military coup. The coup became known as the Saur Revolution.


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In March , Hafizullah Amin took over as prime minister, retaining the position of field marshal and becoming vice-president of the Supreme Defence Council. Taraki remained President and in control of the Army. On 14 September, Amin overthrew Taraki, who was killed. Amin stated that "the Afghans recognize only crude force. It moved to replace religious and traditional laws with secular and Marxist—Leninist ones. Men were obliged to cut their beards, women could not wear a chador , and mosques were placed off limits.

The PDPA made a number of reforms on women's rights , banning forced marriages and giving state recognition of women's right to vote. A prominent example was Anahita Ratebzad , who was a major Marxist leader and a member of the Revolutionary Council. Ratebzad wrote the famous New Kabul Times editorial May 28, which declared: "Privileges which women, by right, must have are equal education, job security, health services, and free time to rear a healthy generation for building the future of the country Educating and enlightening women is now the subject of close government attention.

The USSR also sent contractors to build roads, hospitals and schools and to drill water wells; they also trained and equipped the Afghan army.

At the same time, the PDPA imprisoned, tortured or murdered thousands of members of the traditional elite, the religious establishment, and the intelligentsia. The majority of people in the cities including Kabul either welcomed or were ambivalent to these policies.

However, the Marxist—Leninist and secular nature of the government as well as its heavy dependence on the Soviet Union made it unpopular with a majority of the Afghan population.

History of Afghanistan

Repressions plunged large parts of the country, especially the rural areas, into open revolt against the new Marxist—Leninist government. By spring unrests had reached 24 out of 28 Afghan provinces including major urban areas. Over half of the Afghan army would either desert or join the insurrection. Most of the government's new policies clashed directly with the traditional Afghan understanding of Islam , making religion one of the only forces capable of unifying the tribally and ethnically divided population against the unpopular new government, and ushering in the advent of Islamist participation in Afghan politics.

To bolster the Parcham faction, the Soviet Union decided to intervene on December 27, , when the Red Army invaded its southern neighbor. Over , Soviet troops took part in the invasion, which was backed by another , Afghan military men and supporters of the Parcham faction. In the meantime, Hafizullah Amin was killed and replaced by Babrak Karmal. In response to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, the Carter administration and Reagan administration in the U.

The U. Scholars such as W. The Afghan refugees in Iran and Pakistan brought with them verifiable stories of murder, collective rape, torture and depopulation of civilians by the Soviet forces. Their withdrawal from Afghanistan was seen as an ideological victory in the United States, which had backed some Mujahideen factions through three U. For this purpose the ISI masterminded an attack on Jalalabad in March , for the Mujahideen to establish their own government in Afghanistan, but this failed in three months. With the crumbling of the Najibullah-regime early in , Afghanistan fell into further disarray and civil war.

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